The eastern part of Earth Land is occupied by a very large peninsula called Ishgar, that around is surrounded by scattered isles of differing sizes; the peninsula itself is linked to the mainland, whose geography is mainly unknown.
The territory seems to be split into several countries:
- The Kingdom of Fiore, occupying a smaller, secondary peninsula sprouting from the main one, to the west
- The Land of Isvan, a country located to the east of Fiore, although its exact location in Ishgar is unknown.
- The Principality of Veronica, a small country located in the mountains north to Fiore.
- The country of Seven, occupying a peninsula northeast of Fiore.
- The country of Bosco, located east of Fiore.
- The country of Iceberg, located to the east of Seven, northeast of Bosco, north of Joya, northwest of Bellum and west of the Pergrande Kingdom.
- The country of Stella, located to the east of Bosco, the north of Iceberg and the southwest of Joya.
- The country of Minstrel, located to the southeast of Fiore, separated from it by a large gulf with an island in its center.
- The country of Midi, located on a small peninsula south of Minstrel.
- The country of Desierto, a large region located east of Minstrel.
- The country of Joya, located north of Desierto.
- The country of Bellum, located east of Desierto, on the eastern shore of the large lake separating it from Desierto and Joya.
- The country of Sin, located on a peninsula in the southern part of the continent.
- The island of Caelum, located in the sea not far from Minstrel's western shores.
- The island of Enca, located south of Sin.
- The Pergrande Kingdom, the largest country, located in the easternmost part of the peninsula, linking it to the mainland.
There is a variety of races inhabiting Earth Land:
- Human: The main race in Earth Land.
- Dragon: A rare, large and immensely powerful reptilian creature. They are known to be very intelligent, and, in some cases, to appreciate humans, sometimes taking them under their protection and teaching them Dragon Slayer Magic.
- Exceed: Anthropomorphous talking cats capable of sprouting wings and flying through the use of the Magic Aera. They hail from Edolas, a dimension parallel to Earth Land, and they were all transported to the latter by interdimensional Anima portals.
- Vulcan: Large creatures reminiscent of gorillas with a massive horn topping their heads; they are capable of understanding human language and speaking a rudimentary form of it. They employ Take Over Magic to take the form of humans. They are known to reside on Mt. Hakobe, in the Kingdom of Fiore.
- Hane-Sakana: A rare species of fish gifted with wings for flight that is capable of breathing air.
- Wyvern: Somewhat reminiscent of Dragons, these winged reptiles are much smaller and more beastly in nature. Blizzardverns are a subspecies that inhabit places with cold climate like mountains unlike Wyverns, which appear to live in the forest.
- Goblins: Humorous little creatures reminiscent of otherworldly rodents, which are capable of wielding makeshift weapons.
- Gods: A race of immensely powerful deities, usually large in size, with various types of destructive Magic Power.
- Giants: A race of, as the name implies, exponentially large human-like beings. They are known to reside in the Sun Village.
- Demons: A race of humanoid beings with demonic features. Some of them are known to reside on Galuna Island. There also exist Demons artificially created by Zeref known as the Etherious.
- Celestial Spirits: Magical beings that herald from their own separate universe: the Celestial Spirit World.
- Angels: A race of white-winged creatures that can be summoned using Angel Magic.
- Bakshi: Small, reptilian creatures highly reminiscent of chameleons that reside on Tenrou Island.
- Clipper: A species of bird residing on Tenrou Island known for their brutality and pack mentality.
- Curily: Small rodent-like creatures distinct to Tenrou Island.
- Doscadon: Enormous, carnivorous dinosaur-like creatures covered in scales that reside on Tenrou Island.
- Grand Magic Games Monsters: Artificial life forms created by the Grand Magic Games organizers.
- Hodras: A very common species of animal, reminiscent of pigs, that reside in Fiore.
- Machias: A machine-like species that are all capable of using and retaining Magic.
- Cubina Gamal: Large and bizarre herbivorous creatures with short, thin limbs and human-like hands; distinct to Tenrou Island.
- Lizardmen: Humanoid lizard-like creatures; they are able to be manufactured artificially.
- Rollidillo: Massive, strong, quadrupedal reptilian creatures that reside on Tenrou Island.
- Spirit-Luminescent Bug: Bugs whose bodies glow; they reside in the caves of Tenrou Island, lighting the area around them.
- Tenrou Squirrel: Small rodent-like creatures, highly reminiscent of squirrels, who live only on Tenrou Island.
- Weretiger: Humanoid feline beasts known for their immense speed.
Magic in Earth Land is located inside the body of living organisms. In some races, Magic occurs in all individuals, but only 10% of humankind uses it. Magic can be divided into two main classifications:
- Caster Magic: It is Magic which, as the name suggests, is generated and expelled from the caster's body, as opposed to Magic done through the use of a weapon or outside source.
- Holder Magic; It is Magic that requires a Mage to employ an external source to be produced.
- Many of the countries' names are simple words borrowed from other languages:
- "Fiore" is Italian for "Flower".
- "Bosco" is Italian for "Forest".
- "Desierto" is Spanish for "Desert".
- "Joya" is Spanish for "Jewel".
- "Bellum" is Latin for "War".
- "Caelum" is Latin for "Sky".